Mitochondria : Amazing, and simply Amazing !

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Some videos below will show you what I mean when I say "Amazing !"


If we have them in the right order you'll see.


  • Human cells represented, and showing where mitochondria spend their days.
  • How mitochondria make ATP. An amazing enzyme called ATPase. I said "enzyme" because that "-zyme" termination was always the way enzymes were taught in Biochemistry class. But actually, and as you'll see, ATPase is a wonderful machine, a turbine, that cranks out ATP. That is, as long as you give it what it needs to do the work. Its made of multiple protein subunits that work in perfect harmony through each turn of the wheel. Multiple mini-mchines working together.
  • And "what it needs" are protons, call them hydrogen ions or H+ if you like, but protons to drive the turbines wheel.
  • Now where the heck are you going to find a mess of protons when you need one? Well, in the electron transport chain. 
  • Electron Transport Chain - explaining that in this paragraph will turn into 4 pages at least. Watch the movie.
  • Say, who though of all these "mini-machines"? I mean, who had the plan? Ans.: it's encoded in each mitochondrions DNA. A small circular ring of DNA that codes for all of these machines made of protein. 
  • Are their just one or two of these turbines and transport chains and all the rest? Ans.: No. Gillions of them throughout the human body. Making sure the ights stay on and that they never go out. Well, not until ... the game is over.
  • And two optional explanations from professors who swim in this each day.


Let's have a look:


But first, a warning. You'll be looking at more things that look like this Intro below.

Events going on inside of you. Right now.

Not for the faint of pancreas.






Mitochondria - Structure & Function

Tracks from outside cells to quickly enter into mitochondria territory.



Next ...




The Structure and Function of ATPase (the turbine): literally turns ADP + Phosphate, into ATP. It's driven by protons or hydrogen ions that make the turbine turn. It's happening in your cells now.




A link to the above video:


Wonderful. But where do those protons come from?


Next part of the explanation: the Electron Transport Chain is coming up.






But first, as with so many things in the body, things happen, movement continues because there is a gradient. A zone of high concentration of something, and a zone of low concentration. Here: protons.  And there needs to be a a barrier between the two zones. If not they flow and mix, and that's not a gradient. The separators are membranes. Phospholipid bilayers (don't worry anout that) as seen in the grey bar above from the previous video. Stay with me.






  The Electron Transport Chain  


Just one thing to mention before you go with this.

NOTICE: Towards the end, a transporter named 'Cytochrome c'. It carries electrons to the E.T.C. Complex 4 (explained in the video). We'll come back to that in subsequent articles.

It passes through quickly here. It is very important to where we are headed. Just remember the name: 'Cyrochrome c'.



Are we still heading towards "long-term" COVID-19 in all of this? Absolutely.


And just to help with the fit of all these non-imaginary little machines with our day-to-day; We breathe oxygen because it is the final electron acceptor at the end of the Electron Transport Chain. 

Did I just give something away?


Next, ...


  The Catalytic Subunits   


If taking things apart to see how they work pleases you, here's a great explanation of how those areas that put together the ATP, do this like a well choreographed dance. Amazing. Every 120 degrees of turn of the central axis, something different happens. Over, and over again.



Or maybe not just yet ...


I'm sure the possibility exists of feeling quite blown away by all of this.


So, who could put mitochondrial activity in perspective for us? 


Who has the experience, the professorial knowledge, but especially the deep love of this subject matter?


You don't have to do these all right now. Better to let some of this sink in and come back to these from time to time.


Are these too complicated for the non-initiated?

Perhaps. But it's how professionals talk. They're so into it, that they can't do otherwise.

You can't teach an old dog new tricks. Even if the speakers here are not that old, they are each day embedded in their stuff. And it shows. Just retain what you can.


Listen especially and note: where this field had been, and where it seems headed.

On subsequent pages, we'll place articles in PDF to help make this all complete. 

Especially for those who actually already know a lot about mitochondria. They're welcome too.



I would elect ...



  Jodi Nunnari   



The above video is at:



Want a slightly different style? Perhaps ...


  Jared Rutter   


He'll be telling you about:


  • mitochondrial origins
  • structure
  • mitochondria and metabolism
  • protein homeostasis
  • communication between mitochondria and between mitochondria and other cell organelles



A link to the above:



And here is his follow-up presentation, if your brain cells still have enough ATP available ...



A link to the above:



  "Can We Bring This All Together Now ?"  


  • This information is all pretty amazing.
  • The superb animations were made possible how? Did we have these 40 years ago?
    • No. We had Biochemistry.
    • But since then multiple fields have pulled together on this: Biology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Medical Illustration that have now gone far beyond Frank Netter (look him up). And never too far away, inputs still from Biochemitry, Organic Chemistry, Physics and even Mathematics. When someone comes up with a blockbuster, others notice and try to make the parts fit with what their field knows and can add. Moving now at light speed.
    • We get a sense of how much has been learned.
    • We get a sense that this has opened the door on a field where probably most remains unknown.
    • Saying that mitochondria are "the powerhouse of the cell," while correct, pales before the myriad functions that mitochondria are carrying out. In Immunology for instance. And in Sickness & In Health.
    • So should we just stop and wait for more amazing results? Absolutely not. No time for that.
    • But it all stays in the Scientific Method. Gently setting aside the old theories that have served so well, to be replaced cautiously, by the new. 


"Ok. Nice. Very neat. Amazing. 

But is there a link here to "long-term" COVID-19, or not? 


ANS. : Yes, there is a link.  

Follow me. >>>>>>>>>






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